Published By: Orna Ghosh

After effects of Industrial Revolution- Pros and Cons.

The industrial revolution that began in the 18th century brought numerous changes in the workplace over time.

The society we live in today is the result of the industrial revolution, but what is it? Industrial Revolution is the process of change in which the change occurs in different sectors of the economy. The idea behind this is to shift the handicraft economy to a factory or industry dominated one. As a result, we have everything- starting from high-rise buildings to automatic devices to advanced automobiles.

Initially, the industrial revolution began in Britain, which then paved its way through different global markets. An English economic historian, Arnold Toynbee, was the first to popularise the term industrial revolution to describe the sudden economic development in Britain. This term was used by French writers earlier. However, it was only after Arnold's time that the term broadly applied to the economic transformation.

The industrial revolution has impacted the course of human history, economy and society. Therefore, it has several advantages and disadvantages too.


It opened up numerous job opportunities. Before the industrial revolution, jobs openings were on educational qualifications, family traditions or unique talent (artists or handicraftsmen). It was after the era of industrial change that factory set-ups increased job opportunities for everybody. Therefore, an average person could decently earn a living.

It encourages import and export opportunities for the global market. Industrial Revolution was able to set up multinational firms around the world. It increased the demand for the product in the market, which eventually maximised production. As a result of import/export facilities, the world economy gained profit due to balance trade, increasing business wealth and tax revenues.

It increased work efficiency. It is due to the industrial revolution that maximised the production of various items. It led to the development of advanced machines and vehicles to ease out industrial loads.


It is one of the causes behind Global Warming. In addition, factory set-ups after the industrial revolution contributed to various environmental pollutions. The fuel and other resources required daily for industrial production resulted in global challenges- air pollution, water pollution, reduction in natural resources, habitat destruction and global warming.

It replaced man-force with technologies. The advancing industrial standards ended up developing various labor-saving types of machinery and types of equipment. These devices work with minimum workers involvement workers are losing jobs.

Therefore, we can conclude that Industrial Revolution brought many changes to society, both positive and negative changes that became a part of the society we live in today.