Published By: Sreyanshi

Early Man Site at Sangiran

Sangiran Early Man Site is the land of Homo erectus in Indonesia.

The 5,600-hectare Sangiran Early Man Site is located around 15 kilometers north of Solo town in Central Java, Indonesia. After the 1930s saw the discovery of Homo erectus bones and related stone artifacts (often referred to as Sangiran flake industry), it rose to fame. From the top Pliocene to the end of the Middle Pleistocene, there is a highly significant geological sequence that illustrates the evolution of humans, animals, and culture over the previous 2.4 million years. Important archaeological habitation floors from the Lower Pleistocene, which occurred 1.2 million years ago, are also found on the land.

Early Man Fossils from 1.5 Million years ago

More than 100 Homo erectus fossils, going back at least 1.5 million years, are found on the site, and the strata' extensive macrofossils offer a clear and comprehensive record of several faunal features. These fossils demonstrate the course of human evolution during the Pleistocene, notably between 1.5 and 0.4 million years ago. Sangiran, which has been inhabited for the past 1.5 million years, is one of the major locations for understanding the development of humans. Since then, further stone tool finds have been made. These fossils, animal remains, and stone tool deposits were made within its continuous stratigraphic strata.


Within the borders of the nominated region, all of the property's potential features, including fossilized human and animal remains and artifacts, can be discovered in their natural settings. The evidence is rarely found intact when it is discovered from open areas, as is typical, because of erosion and transit mechanisms. One must admit that these natural forces have long been the most effective players in the excavation of the Sangiran Early Man Site.


This property uses cultural artifacts from their original strata, which depict distinct historical eras and habitats, to exhibit the sequences of human, cultural, and environmental evolutions over a two million year span.

Needs for management and protection

The Republic of Indonesia's Ministry of Education and Culture enacted Decree Number 070/1977 to safeguard the whole property. This order designated the Sangiran region as a cultural site of Pleistocene human evolutions that is subject to national protection. The government has released Indonesian Law Number 5/1992, which was later changed to Number 11/2010, for complete protection, including prohibition against the unlawful trade in fossils and area management (including zoning of the land). The local government has been actively reforesting the area to prevent erosion, landslides, and transportation procedures. Since the end of the sand mining industry in 2008, there has been no more sand mining.

National Vital Object

Due to its considerable cultural elements, the property has been designated as a National Vital Object since 2008, meaning that the Indonesian government has taken steps to conserve it and regards it as a crucial location for the country. Due to organizational changes at the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 2012, the property is now entirely overseen and governed by the Directorate General of Culture, Ministry of Education and Culture. The government enlists the assistance of all interested parties, including universities, local communities, and local governments, to administer the land under the direction of the Ministry.  A Master Plan has been devised with a detailed engineering design for long-term management, including study, protection, and public use.

Four thematic clusters

Four theme clusters have been constructed in order to successfully preserve the property: the Krikilan Cluster (as a visitor center), the Ngebung Cluster (the history of the site's discovery), the Bukuran Cluster (human evolution), and the Dayu Cluster (current research). The four clusters will be connected by a unique tourist route in terms of managing tourism. It will take more than one day for people to visit every cluster, which is expected. A property is protected for the long term by being designated as a National Strategic Area (in-progress) and incorporating the neighborhood in conservation efforts. In contrast, the property is managed firmly and without profit by a Coordinating Board that includes all of the interested parties and is overseen by the Directorate General of Culture, Ministry of Education and Culture.