Linguistic Development Of Bengali Literature
Change of literary structure and language over time
The written literature, which is referred to as the first phase of Bengali literature, was mainly written in Prakrit, Pali and Sanskrit scripts. The period was 200 to 600 AD. No well-structured written literature in Bengali script is available during this period. As a result, that literature cannot be called Bengali literature at all. Therefore, as the beginning of literature in Bengali language, we will take the period from which we find documentary documents of literature written in Bengali script.
On that basis Bengali literature is divided into three eras. How the Bengali language has gradually evolved in Bengali literature during these three periods, we will discuss that here.
Ancient age Bengali Literature: Charyapada
We can identify the period of Charyap as the early age of Bengali literature. It can be said that the period from 650 AD to 1100-1200 AD is the early age of Bengali literature. During this period Bengali literature mainly composed charyapadas. In these verses, Buddha’s sayings and evangelical speeches were mainly highlighted. The linguistic characteristics of terms are:
- These verses were melodious, and of two lines
- The language of these padas was mainly influenced by Maithili, Prakrit and Avahattha
- In these era, apart from ‘|’, no other punctuation was used.
- Long words were used more.
- Its language is called Sandhya language as its language has not been fully discovered.
Medieval age of Bengali Literature:
The beginning of this era around 1200 AD and the period up to 1800 AD is identified as the Middle Age of Bengali literature. The most remarkable thing about this era is that it was during this period that the Bengali language got its mature form. In the very first one and a half hundred years of this era, i.e. from 1201 to 1350 AD, there was no evidence of literature written in Bengali language, that is why this period is called the dark age of Bengali literature. After this Bengali language literature progressed.
- Several Islamic literatures were written during this period. This literature is written in Bengali script and uses spoken Bengali.
- Kirtan literature began to be written in Bengal from the fifteenth century. Sri Krishna Kirtan composed by Baruchandidas is one of them. This literature is also melodious but long literature. And the language in this literature was straightforward.
- A lot of translated literature including Ramayana Mahabharata was written during this period.
- In the latter half of this era, the Mangalkavyas were composed, in which the various regional dialects of Bengal prevailed.
Modern age of Bengali Literature
The arrival of the modern age of Bengali literature is through the introduction of modernity in Bengali literature and the beginning of prose literature. This age can be divided into six dashas.linguistics
- 1st phase(1800-1850): During this phase, prose literature began to develop. But the language was Chaste language, called Sadhu Bhasa.
- 2nd phase(1850-1890): During this phase, we can find prose literature in a more structured form. And we can see the use of punctuation in literature from this phase.
- 3rd phase(1890-1930): In this phase, there began the use of Colloquial or Chalit Bhasa. Modern poetries was coming out from this era.
- 4th phase(1930-1947), 5th phase(1947-1970) and 6th phase(1970-present): In these phases we can find quite similar kinds of linguistics in Bengali literature. Massive use of colloquial language, smart gestures and the latest addition: insta literature.